A Bankart lesion is a tear or detachment of the labrum in the front of the shoulder joint. The labrum is a ring of cartilage that surrounds and deepens the shoulder socket and helps to stabilize the joint. Bankart tears are commonly caused by a shoulder dislocation or subluxation (a partial dislocation). Bankart tears cause joint instability and predispose to recurring dislocations which are painful and debilitating. These tears are common in you and active individuals who are engaged in athletic activities and suffer a shoulder dislocation.
Bankart repair is a surgical procedure often employed to correct shoulder instability, specifically addressing a Bankart lesion. The procedure is primarily recommended for individuals who have suffered a shoulder dislocation.
There are variations in the severity and extent of Bankart lesions with some involving significant bone loss in the glenoid socket called a bony Bankart lesion. In such cases, additional procedures like the Latarjet procedure, which involves bone block transfer, may be considered to address the bone loss, and provide more stability to the shoulder joint.
The goal of surgery is to stabilize the shoulder and prevent recurrent dislocations and subluxations. Arthroscopic Bankart repair is the stabilization technique of choice.
Arthroscopic Bankart repair is minimally invasive surgery to repair a Bankart lesion. It involves several small incisions around the shoulder joint in which arthroscope is inserted into the joint.
The arthroscope has a small camera on the end. It allows surgeon to visualize the inside of the shoulder joint, assess the damage and find any other injuries or abnormalities that may need to be addressed.
The arthroscope takes pictures inside the joint and sends them to a monitor for the surgeon to view during the repair using small specialized surgical instruments. The goal is to reattach the torn labrum to the socket to restore joint stability. This minimally invasive procedure results in less tissue bleeding and damage, faster recovery, and reduced post-operative pain as compared to open surgery.
Arthroscopic Bankart repair:
- It is the most utilized technique in the management of symptomatic shoulder instability.
- It is the most appropriate surgery for a simple Bankart lesion without significant glenoid socket bone loss.
- When bone damage is involved open stabilization surgery or the Latarjet procedure is indicated.
The damaged labrum is carefully debrided, and the underlying bone is prepared to help reattach the labrum. The procedure involves placing suture anchors into the glenoid bone to secure the labrum back to the bone.
The recovery process begins with a period of shoulder immobilization in a sling for several weeks to allow the tissues to heal, followed by a structured physical therapy regimen to restore range of motion, strength and function. Recovery duration varies, typically spanning several months to a year, contingent on the patient’s rehabilitation progress and individual circumstances.
Arthroscopic Bankart repair is a technically demanding procedure that requires a high level of expertise. It has proven effective in treating Bankart lesions, restoring stability to the shoulder, and allowing a return to normal function.
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